Breast cancer models
Example: MX-1-GFP and –RFP breast carcinoma growing on mammary fat pads of SCID mouse. Whole-body image.

  • Orthotopic transplantation of intact tissue
  • Metastatic sites
  1. lymph nodes
  2. liver
  3. lung
  4. skeleton
  • Estrogen-dependent
  • Estrogen-independent
  • Green Fluorescent Protein expression
  • Red Fluorescent Protein expression


  1. Fu, X., Le, P., and Hoffman, R.M. A metastatic orthotopic-transplant nude-mouse model of human patient breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 13, 901-904, 1993.[PDF]
  2. Kubota, T., Inoue, S., Furukawa, T., Ishibiki, K., Kitajima, M., Kawamura, E., and Hoffman, R.M. Similarity of serum – Tumor pharmacokinetics of antitumor agents in man and nude mice. Anticancer Res. 13, 1481-1484, 1993.[PDF]
  3. Li, X-M., Wang, J-W., An, Z., Yang, M. Baranov, E., Jiang, P., Sun, F-X., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. Optically imageable metastatic model of human breast cancer. Clinical & Experimental Metastasis, 19, 347-350, 2002.[PDF]
  4. John, C.M., Leffler, H., Kahl-Knutsson, B., Svensson, I., Jarvis, G.A. Truncated Galectin-3 Inhibits Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model of Human Breast Cancer. Clinical Cancer Res. 9, 3808-3814, 2003 [PDF]
  5. Goodison, S., Kawai, K., Hihara, J., Jiang, P., Yang, M., Urquidi, V., Hoffman, R.M., and Tarin, D. Prolonged dormancy and site-specific growth potential of cancer cells spontaneously disseminated from non-metastatic breast tumors revealed by labeling with green fluorescent protein. Clinical Cancer Res. 9, 3808-3814, 2003. [PDF]