Organ-specific models-MetaMouse®
GFP models-OncoBrite®
Angiogenesis models-AngioMouse®
Bone metastases

Pancreas cancer models
Example: BxPC-3-GFP pancreatic carcinoma growing on pancreas with liver and spleen metastasis. Whole-body image. White arrows - primary tumor, red arrow - spleen metastasis, yellow arrow - liver metastasis.


  • Orthotopic transplantation of intact tissue
  • Metastatic sites
    • lymph nodes
    • liver
    • diaphragm
    • adrenal glands
    • stomach
    • duodenum
    • peritoneum
    • lung
    • kidney
    • spleen
    • omentum
  • Green Fluorescent Protein expression
  • Red Fluorescent Protein expression

1. Fu, X., Guadagni, F., and Hoffman, R.M. A metastatic nude-mouse model of human pancreatic cancer constructed orthotopically from histologically intact patient specimens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 5645-5649, 1992.

2. Furukawa, T., Kubota, T., Watanabe, M., Kitajima, M., and Hoffman, R.M. A novel "patient-like" treatment model of human pancreatic cancer constructed using orthotopic transplantation of histologically intact human tumor tissue in nude mice. Cancer Res. 53, 3070-3072, 1993.

3. An, Z., Wang, X., Kubota, T., Moossa, A.R., Hoffman, R.M. A clinical nude mouse metastatic model for highly malignant human pancreatic cancer. Anticancer Res. 16, 627-632, 1996.

4. Tomikawa, M., Kubota, T., Matsuzaki, S.W., Takahasi, S., Kitajima, M., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. Mitomycin C and cisplatin increase survival in a human pancreatic cancer metastatic model. Anticancer Res. 17, 3623-3626, 1997.

5. Bouvet, M., Yang, M., Nardin, S., Wang, X., Jiang, P., Baranov, E., Moossa, A.R., Hoffman, R.M. Chronologically-specific metastatic targeting of human pancreatic tumors in orthotopic models. Clinical & Experimental Metastasis 18, 213-218, 2000.

6. Lee, N.C., Bouvet, M., Nardin, S., Jiang, P., Baranov, E., Rashidi, B., Yang, M., Wang, X., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. Antimetastatic efficacy of adjuvant gemcitabine in a pancreatic cancer orthotopic model. Clinical & Experimental Metastasis 18, 379-384, 2001.

7. Bouvet, M., Wang, J-W., Nardin, S.R., Nassirpour, R., Yang, M., Baranov, E., Jiang, P., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. Real-time optical imaging of primary tumor growth and multiple metastatic events in a pancreatic cancer orthotopic model. Cancer Research, in press.

8. Bouvet, M., Nardin, S.R., Burton, D.W., Lee, N.C., Yang M., Wang, X., Baranov, E., Behling, C., Moosa, A.R., Hoffman R.M., and Deftos L.J. Parathyroid hormone-related protein as a novel tumor marker in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreas 24, 284-290, 2002.

9. Sun, F-X., Tohgo, A., Bouvet, M., Yagi, S., Nassirpour, R., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M.  Efficacy of camptothecin analog DX-8951f (Exatecan Mesylate) on human pancreatic cancer in an orthotopic metastatic model.  Cancer Research 63, 80-85, 2003.

10. Katz, M., Takimoto, S., Spivac, D., Moossa, A.R., Hoffman, R.M., Bouvet, M. A novel red fluorescent protein orthotopic pancreatic cancer model for the preclinical evaluation of chemotherapeutics. J.Surg. Res. 113, 151-160, 2003.

11. Katz, M.H., Bouvet, M., Takimoto, S., Spivac, D., Moossa, A.R., Hoffman, R.M. Selective antimetastatic activity of cytosine analog CS-682 in a red fluorescent protein orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 63, 5521-5525, 2003.

12. Tsuji, K., Yamauchi, K., Jiang, P., Yang, M., and Hoffman, R.M. Common bile duct injection as a novel method for establishing RFP-expressing human pancreatic cancer in nude mice. Journal of the Pancreas 7, 193-199, 2006.

13. Katz, M., Spivac, D., Takimoto, S., Bouvet, M., Moosa, A.R., R.M. Hoffman. An imageable highly metastatic orthotopic red fluorescent protein model of pancreatic cancer. Clin. Exp. Metastasis 21, 7-12, 2004.

14. Katz, M.H., Bouvet, M., Takimoto, S., Spivack, D., Moosa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. Survival efficacy of adjuvant cytosine-analogue CS-682 in a fluorescent orthotopic model of human pancreatic cancer. Cancer Research 64, 1828-1833, 2004.

15. Bouvet, M., Spernyak, J., Katz, M.H., Mazurchuk, R.V., Takimoto, S., Bernacki, R., Rustum, Y.M., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. High correlation of whole- body red fluorescent protein imaging and magnetic resonance imaging on an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Research 65, 9829-9833, 2005.

16. Amoh, Y., Li, L., Tsuji, K., Moosa, A.R., Katsuoka, K., Hoffman, R.M., Bouvet, M. Dual-color imaging of nascent blood vessels vascularizing pancreatic cancer in an orthotopic model demonstrates antioangiogenesis efficacy of gemcitabine. J. Surgical Research 132, 164-169, 2006.


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