Organ-specific models-MetaMouse®
GFP models-OncoBrite®
Angiogenesis models-AngioMouse®
Bone metastases

Prostate cancer models
Example: PC-3 human carcinoma growing on prostate and metastasized to numerous lymph nodes of nude mouse. Whole-body image.


  • Orthotopic transplantation of intact tissue
  • Metastatic sites
    • lymph nodes
    • liver
    • lung
    • skeleton
  • Green Fluorescent Protein expression
  • Red Fluorescent Protein expression

1.  Fu, X., Herrera, H., and Hoffman, R.M. Orthotopic growth and metastasis of human prostate carcinoma in nude mice after transplantation of histologically intact tissue. Int. J. Cancer 52, 987-990, 1992.

2. An, Z., Wang, X., Geller, J., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. Surgical orthotopic implantation allows high lung and lymph node metastatic expression of human prostate carcinoma cell line PC- 3 in nude mice. The Prostate 34, 169-174, 1998.

3. Yang, M., Jiang, P., Sun, F.X., Hasegawa, S., Baranov, E., Chishima, T., Shimada, H., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. A fluorescent orthotopic bone metastasis model of human prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 59, 781-786, 1999.

4. Wang, X., An, Z., Geller, J., and Hoffman, R.M. High malignancy orthotopic nude mouse model of human prostate cancer LNCaP. The Prostate 39, 182-186, 1999.

5. Glinskii, A.B., Smith, B.A., Jiang, P., Li, X-M., Yang, M., Hoffman, R.M., Glinsky, G.V. Viable circulating metastatic cells produced in orthotopic but not ectopic prostate cancer models. Cancer Res. 63, 4239-4243, 2003.

6. Glinsky, G.V., Glinskii, A.B., Stephenson A.J., Hoffman, R.M., Gerald W.L. Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of prostate cancer. J. Clin. Invest. 113, 913-923, 2004

7. Yang, M., Jiang, P., Yamamoto, N., Li, L., Geller, J., Moossa, A.R., and Hoffman, R.M. Real-time whole-body imaging of an orthotopic metastatic prostate cancer model expressing rad fluorescent protein. The Prostate 62, 374-379,2005. DOI #10.1002/pros.20125.

8. Burton, D.W., Geller, J., Yang, M., Jiang, P., Barken, I., Hastings, R.H., Hoffman, R.M., and Deftos, L.J. Monitoring of skeletal progression of prostate cancer by GFP imaging, X-ray, and serum OPG and PTHrP. The Prostate 62, 275-281, 2005. DOI: 10.1002/pros.20146.

9. Deftos, L.J., Barken, I., Burton, D.W., Hoffman, R.M., and Geller, J. Direct evidence that PTHrP expression promotes prostate cancer progression in bone. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 327, 468-472, 2005.

10. Berezovskaya, O., Schimmer, A.D., Glinskii, A.B., Pinilla, C., Hoffman, R.M., Reed, J.C., and Glinky, G.V.  Increased _expression of apoptosis inhibitor protein XIAP contributes to resistance to anoikis of human prostate cancer metastasis precursor cells.  Cancer Research 65, 2378-2386, 2005.

11. Glinsky, G.V., Glinski, A.B., Berezovskaya, O., Smith, B.A., Jiang, P., Li, X-M., Yang, M., Hoffman, R.M. Dual color-coded imaging of viable circulating prostate carcinoma cells reveals genetic exchange between tumor cells in vivo, contributing to highly metastatic phenotypes. Cell Cycle 5, 191-197, 2006.


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